Primary energy sources such as anthracite coal, lignite, petroleum, natural gas, hydroelectric and geothermal energy, wood, animal and plant residues and solar and wind energy are used for energy consumption in Turkey. Electrical energy and coke are used as secondary energy sources.
In parallel with the growing economy, the developing and diversifying industrial activities and changing demographic structure, important developments have been recorded in the consumption values of primary energy and electricity in Turkey in the last 40 years. During this period, primary energy consumption increased by an annual average rate of 4.7% and electricity consumption rose around 9.7%. In 2002, primary energy consumption was realized at 78.4 million tons, with a 3.2% decrease compared to the previous year’s figure, while per capita primary energy consumption was equal to 1,125 kg of petroleum. When analyzed in terms of resources utilized, an increase in lignite and natural gas and a decrease in anthracite coal, petroleum derivatives, and hydraulic energy are observed.
During the Seventh Five-Year Development Plan implemented between 1996-2000, primary energy production increased by 1.3% per year. Energy types for which production does not meet the demand are imported and provided for the consumer. Approximately 74% of the energy demands in Turkey are met through foreign sources. Petroleum has the largest share in foreign sources. In recent years, the use of natural gas has also significantly increased.
In 2002, the established electrical energy power in Turkey increased to 31,846 megawatts (MW) and the average production capacity reached 180 billion kilowatts/hour (kWh). Hydraulic plants produce 26%, lignite plants 21.7% and natural gas plants 40.6% of the actual electricity produced. In 2002, electricity consumption increasing by 4.5% reached 132.5 billion kWh, and per capita gross consumption was 1.901 kWh.
It is expected that the primary energy demand in 2005 will reach the equivalent of 115.2 million tons of petroleum and in 2010, the equivalent of 153.9 million tons of petroleum. According to predictions for 2005, the electricity demand will be 176 billion kWh and 265 billion kWh in 2010.
In view of the increasing energy demand in Turkey as well as the harmonization process with the EU, and integration with the global economy, the Electricity Market Law went into effect on March 3, 2001 and the Natural Gas Market Law on May 2, 2001. With the termination of the preparatory periods envisioned in these laws, the New Electricity Market has opened on September 3, 2002 and the Natural Gas Market on November 2, 2002.